How the E-Cat Works
Pure Energy Systems News
October 20, 2011
The heart of an E-Cat (Energy Catalyzer) is the reactor core. This is the metal tube in which the cold fusion nuclear reactions take place. Due to the high power density of the E-Cat technology, extremely large reactor cores are not required. Most E-Cat reactor core models have an internal volume that is smaller than a can of soda. Others are as small as a D-Cell battery, with an internal volume of around 50 cubic centimeters.
In the tube that composes the reactor core, a small quantity of specially processed, micron grain sized, nickel powder is placed. The nickel powder has been enriched in two specific isotopes (Ni-62 and Ni-64) via a proprietary and cheap method that only adds 10% to the final cost of the raw material. Enriching the nickel powder in Ni-62 and Ni-64 is important, because it is these two isotopes that undergo the most nuclear reactions.
All reagents and resulting products, Cu-63 and Cu-65, are stable. [Link]
Once the nickel powder is placed in the reactor core, an even smaller quantity of catalyst material is inserted into the same metal tube. Without the catalyst, the E-Cat could not produce practical levels of output. The catalyst is composed of one or more chemical elements that are not radioactive, rare, or expensive. In fact, the cost of the catalyst is considered to be insignificant.
Next, the reactor core is filled with a small quantity of pressurized hydrogen gas, from an external canister. The pressure of the hydrogen gas is a key factor in moderating the intensity of the reactions that take place in the reactor core. Higher hydrogen pressure increases the rate at which nuclear reactions take place, and lower hydrogen pressure reduces the rate.
Once the hydrogen gas has been inserted, external electrical resistors apply heat to the reactor core. At this point, the catalyst starts breaking down the molecular hydrogen gas (the normal form of hydrogen gas in which two hydrogen atoms are bonded together to form a single molecule), into atomic hydrogen gas. In the atomic state, the hydrogen atoms are not bonded to another hydrogen atom, and are isolated from each other.
These atomic hydrogen atoms then start interacting with tubercles on the surface of the nickel powder, where the reaction sites are located. The atomic hydrogen starts to fuse with atoms of nickel located at these reaction sites. As the nuclear reactions take place, the vast majority of gamma radiation that would be produced in such a nuclear reaction, are instantly converted into heat energy. A portion of this heat energy helps keep the reactions going, and at a certain point when the reactions are frequent enough, the input resistors can be cut off. At this point, the device is in a self-sustaining mode of operation.
Upon entering the self-sustaining mode of operation, a radio frequency generator may be turned on to help perpetuate and stabilize the cold fusion nuclear reactions taking place inside of the reactor core.
The reactor core is only one part of an E-Cat (Energy Catalyzer). It is simply the part that generates energy in the form of heat. To extract energy from the sealed reactor core, a coolant flows past it extracting heat energy from the outer surface of the reactor core. The coolant can be water, glycol, or another liquid with appropriate heat transfer properties. In some experiments, it has even been a flow of air.
It is important to note that the flow of liquid also serves another purpose. This additional purpose is keeping the reactor core from over heating. If the reactor core is allowed to become too hot, the nickel powder would melt and all nuclear reactions will cease. If such an event happened, the reactor would be "dead" and non-operative until a replacement reactor core was installed.
The heated coolant is transferred through a primary circuit, and then to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger transfers the heat from the coolant to a liquid in a secondary circuit (such as water). The coolant in the primary circuit -- now at a lower temperature -- can then be re-used to extract heat energy from the reactor core once again.
Energy collected by the secondary circuit can be used for many industrially useful purposes such producing hot water, producing steam, turning a turbine, or producing electricity.
Page by Hank
Mills and Sterling
Allan, PES Network, Inc.
visits since October 20, 2011
Last updated November 18, 2011 08:34:23 PM -0500